Well done to Ondi Crino (now at Deakin University), who today saw her paper published, focused on probably the most remote field sites that we’ve worked on to date. Ondi measured the condition of birds across these five different sites, which all faced different ecological conditions, likely due to the different rainfall that they had experienced over the couple of years prior to the sampling. Birds in the different locations were in different condition and their stress hormones reflected this. Both things were correlated with the amount of breeding activity that we found across these five populations. The study is a step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying the opportunistic breeding that is seen in so many Australian birds – where birds will only breed when the local conditions are good. The paper was published today in General and Comparative Endocrinology and can be found here.
Lori’s work on the effect of heat on sperm quality was recently published in Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, and attracted some nice coverage in the media.
We have published two recent papers (led by Sam Andrew), that show how body size of adult birds appears to be shaped by the climate during development. The first of these, published in Auk (link), is an observational study of the house sparrow across Australia, showing that in hotter areas sparrows are smaller. This pattern, consistent with findings in North America and Europe, is better explained by hot summer temperatures, than cold winter temperatures, and we believe suggests that development might be constrained by growing in hot conditions.
This idea was then supported by experimental work (along with some field observations) from the zebra finch. In this study (published in Journal of Evolutionary Biology) (link) we showed that birds that were reared in temperature controlled rooms at 30ºC were smaller than their full siblings reared at 18ºC. This is one of the first experiments to show that the ambient temperature effects development and body size in a warm-blooded animal.
We are running a special field trip to Fowlers Gap from Monday 4th December to Tuesday 12th December for students who are keen to explore research opportunities with our research group. Fowlers Gap is an Arid Zone Research Station just to the north of Broken Hill (for more info on the station check out the link above).
We will take the best 6 applicants out there and cover transport, accommodation and food costs. Applicants will be expected to help out on two active research programs – one on sheep and the other on zebra finches. Applicants will be selected on the basis of their grades and the 400 word summary of why they would like to take part in either one of these research projects. More details on these projects can be found on this website.
This is a great opportunity for those interested to get to visit the iconic Australian outback and see species such as red kangaroos, emus, zebra finches and budgies in this spectacular environment.
As well as helping us with research you will get a chance to interact with members of the research group and explore opportunities for your own research projects at Fowlers Gap in the future. We are actively trying to recruit students into second year MRes and PhDs.
To express interest please contact either Stephan Leu or Simon Griffith by email.
To apply to come on this trip please submit an application as a single PDF providing the 400 word summary above as well as the grades that you achieved in any 300 level courses you have taken to date.
Closing Date for applications 15th October
Today saw the publication of the first paper from Lori’s thesis (yay). The paper, published in the Auk, focuses attention on the variation in the number of sperm trapped in the perivitelline layer of the membrane of the egg. The paper is supported by a Blog post written by Lori.
Our new sheep research project is now underway, with the first trip by Dr Stephan Leu to Fowlers Gap, to trial the new tracking collars and start planning the first experiments! Stephan’s project will investigate movement, foraging efficiency, life history and the benefits of social behaviour in rangeland sheep.
Well done to Peri, who today submitted the final copy of her thesis to the library. Peri’s PhD thesis was well received by the three examiners who all recommended ‘award without corrections’. This was a great achievement, and we are very proud of her. Peri will be setting off to East Carolina University in July for an Endeavour scholarship.
The most recent paper from the research group has just been published in Auk (find it). This paper, by Daisy Duursma, is the first from her PhD work and describes the breeding phenology of most of Australia’s terrestrial birds from all of the available records (museum egg collections, bird nest record cards, banding records, Atlas records). As well as helping to define the high degree of opportunistic breeding in Australia’s birds, the paper shows the kind of analysis that can be achieved using these infrequently used sources of data. We show that breeding periods in Australian birds are much longer than those typically found in the northern hemisphere. A surprise finding was that birds in the deserts are actually somewhat less opportunistic than those in grassland and temperate zones within Australia.
Fig 3. from the paper (full details in the paper), please email for a PDF of the whole paper.
We have four quite different PhD projects in the research group that have been advertised today. These are working across four species and some similar research questions. Three of the projects are based at Fowlers Gap which is an amazing field site in the arid zone near Broken Hill, where we have worked for the past 13 years. Work on the zebra finch in the wild, continues our ongoing into this species, where we have been the only lab in recent years trying to understand the ecology of the species in the wild (more details on that research here). The project with Stephan Leu is a new direction for us, into the behaviour and ecology of sheep in the rangeland. This project will use techniques that we have previously used in both birds and lizards, but use them in an applied context.
The project on the sleepy lizard is in collaboration with Martin Whiting’s group, also at Macquarie University. We are hoping to recruit students onto all of these projects in 2017, in order to maximise the outcomes from current Australian Research Council funding to Griffith and Leu. Due to this funding the projects are well supported and will provide great research opportunities. We have a good history in the group of graduating our PhD students with a good number of peer-reviewed papers and a range of different skills that will enhance further career opportunities.
1: Adapting to a foreign climate: the reproductive ecology of the house sparrow in Australia
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) was introduced into Australia in the 1860’s and has since become well established across a broad range of climates in both countries. This project will take advantage of this ‘experimental’ introduction to focus on behavioural and physiological adaptations to different climates through a field-based comparative approach. This research will complement our existing work on related questions in endemic Australian species and will provide insight into the capacity of avian species to adapt to changing climates. This project will involve periods of field-work in Broken Hill, Armidale and Hobart in Australia, along with a range of behavioural, molecular and physiological assays. The project will involve collaboration with other groups in Australia and the US.
2: The challenge of growing in a hot climate (in the zebra finch)
In recent years we have characterised the very hot conditions in which zebra finches are raised (with nests often reaching temperatures over 40 degrees Celsius, as well as identifying adverse effects of these conditions on embryonic development, offspring growth, and adult sperm. This project is supported by an ARC funded project and will investigate the adaptations that this iconic and well-studied species has to deal with the extreme climate in which it lives. The project will take a variety of approaches including behavioural work, and assays of metabolism and physiology, and combine fieldwork and laboratory work. The project will be run in collaboration with Dr Christine Cooper (Curtin University, Western Australia), Prof. Pierre Deviche (Arizona State University, US), and Prof. Pat Monaghan (Glasgow, UK).
3: Social structuring and life-history in free-ranging domestic sheep
In this project we will examine the importance of social structure and collective intelligence to life-history trade-offs and productivity in domestic sheep in the rangelands of Australia. The project will use tools from social network theory and spatial ecology to characterise individual and group behaviour and investigate their effect on individual quality and productivity (lambs and wool) in this challenging, but economically important part of Australia. The project will be based at Fowlers Gap (near Broken Hill in the arid zone) and require field work and well-developed analytical skills. This work will be run in collaboration with partners in the pastoral industry and be jointly supervised by Dr Stephan Leu (also at Macquarie University).
4: Parasite transmission dynamics in an Australian lizard
This project will investigate the relationship between host spatial and social behaviour and bacterial transmission. It combines social network theory, spatial ecology and wildlife epidemiology to determine how different bacterial strains are transmitted through the population and how individual behaviour and consequently population social structure changes as a function of infection status. The project combines the analysis of a very comprehensive (already collected) dataset with scope for the student to develop his/her own ideas and conduct fieldwork. The student should be interested in social networks and disease modelling and have strong analytical skills. This project will be jointly supervised by Dr Stephan Leu and A/Prof Martin Whiting (both at Macquarie University). We also have strong relationships with disease modelling colleagues in the US.
The Department of Biological Sciences at Macquarie University is a vibrant environment which offers excellent support to postgraduate students. A Macquarie University Excellence in Research Scholarship has already been assigned to one of these projects, but there are other scholarship opportunities available to suitably competitive candidates. International candidates are welcome to apply for any of the projects listed above.
The 2014 MQRES full-time stipend rate is $26,682 pa tax exempt for 3 years (indexed annually). In addition to external grant support for projects, there is additional internal funding (up to $17,000) available to cover direct research expenses and conference travel.
Applicants should ideally have a research-based MSc in a related discipline (with a minimum 50% research component), and additional relevant research experience, qualifications, and details of awards or prizes. For projects 1, 2, and 4 an ability to work in remote and harsh conditions as well as experience in capturing and handling animals is desirable. A driving licence is required for all projects.
Applications should include 1) your CV, 2) a brief statement of your reasons for applying (max. 500 words) and the project you are applying to work on, 3) contact details of two academic referees, 4) your nationality (for scholarship eligibility purposes). Applications should be submitted electronically as a single PDF file.
Applications for these positions (and any initial enquiries) should be emailed by 7th April 2017 to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Simon Griffith, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
In a paper published today (Griffith & Hooper 2017), we characterise the variation in bill colour across 1800km of the tropical savannah in Australia, clearly identifying the contact zone between the different subspecies (identified by bill colour), and providing evidence for selection against hybrids. This paper is one of the first outcomes from a project that started with fieldwork back in 2009 and required lots of amazing fieldwork on cattle stations across the top end. The full paper can be found here.
Our paper focused on the experimental divorce of zebra finch pairs has been published in the January volume of the journal Hormones and Behavior. The link to the paper is here. The paper was led by Ondi Crino and is based on bird work at Macquarie together with hormone assays that she did when she moved to Deakin, to take a new position in Kate Buchanan’s group. The main findings in the study were that new pairs that formed after an experimental divorce took longer to lay their clutch, and their offspring had higher levels of stress than those of their counterparts that stayed together. The study helps us to understand why so many birds remain with their partners from one breeding attempt to the next – serial monogamy.
One of last years fieldwork volunteers, Niall Stopford, has put together a great video, introducing the work that Andy Russell and team have been doing on the chestnut-crowned babblers at Fowlers Gap. The video can be seen here